Popular and Effective Instructional Design Models

Among several classifications of the learning objectives and acquisition of skills, listed below are four of the most popular and effective instructional design models

  • ADDIE Model
  • Merrill’s Principles of Instruction
  • Gagne’s Nine Events of Instructions
  • Bloom’s Taxonomy

Using an Instruction Design Model meets the purpose of a training or a learning program. It enables proper utilization of the major components involved in the process.



There are 5 basic levels of this model by the name – A-Analysis, D-Design, D-Development, I-Implementation, and E-Evaluation. These steps when properly executed provide a structural guideline to a training plan.

  • Analysis — This is done taking into account the requirement, existing skills, characteristics of the trainee, expectation of the organization and so on. This enables proper identification and lays the path for further progress.
  • Designing — This is done through selection of training tools, delivery mode, objectives and setting goals to achieve.
  • Development — This is done by executing the designed plan and framing a concrete structure from the same.
  • Implementation — This is done by incorporating the plan after proper review. Orientation on the process, the objectives as well as content takes place for Trainers as well as Trainees.
  • Evaluation — This is done by measuring effect of the course through feedback, analysis through specific tools or references.

Merrill’s Principles of Instruction

There are 5 categories which can be divided based on the approaches.
  • Demonstration – This is insertion of visual aids to enable learning. It can be a video of a series of tasks being performed.
  • Application – This is implementation of the learning in real life situations by the learners. They understand the effectiveness and applicability through this.
  • Activation – This is taking care of bridging the existing knowledge of the learners to the new learning process. They should be able to relate and grasp the content well.
  • Integration – This is individually correlating the learning and using them in everyday tasks to maximize output or perform better.
  • Engagement – This is testing the learners take away by making them solve tasks where they can apply their learning.

Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction

Gagne laid down nine principles as the Events of Instruction.

  • Gaining attention – Involves gaining learner attention and motivating the trainees to ensure active participation.
  • Informing — Involves communicating the objective and outcome to the learners and explain them their role in participating and the benefits of participating.
  • Stimulating recall — Involves connecting their existing knowledge on the topic to what new they are going to acquire in the learning process.
  • Presenting the content — Involves an organized delivery of the content in an interesting manner using the best aids and methods of display.
  • Providing learner guidance — Involves proper explanation of the content through examples, case study, role play, visual representations and more.
  • Eliciting performance — Involves making the learner engage in an activity which is based on the new learning. Learners can check the response they give while performing the same and understand the applicability well.
  • Providing feedback — Involves providing immediate feedback on performing the above activity. Sharing the observation tips and correcting them as and where necessary.
  • Assessing performance — Involves grading the learners’ acquisition through a verbal or a written exam so as to measure the effectiveness of the learning.
  • Enhancing retention — Involves providing the learners with reference materials which can include a brief content, mind maps, outlining, summarizing, create job aids and more.

Bloom’s Taxonomy

This hierarchical design has six steps to it and is usually represented by a pyramid:

  • Remembering: Mostly listing or recalling the learning concepts
  • Understanding: To be able to describe, summarize or interpret the learning concept
  • Applying: To be able to solve, use or implement the learning process
  • Analyzing: To be able to relate, classify or categorize the applicability of the learning process
  • Evaluating: To compare, determine, justify and judge the application of the learning process
  • Creating: To be able to derive, formulate and generate a new model out of the learning
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